Understanding UAE Taxation: How to Optimize Your Business's Tax Strategy.

Understanding UAE Taxation: How to Optimize Your Business’s Tax Strategy.

Understanding UAE Taxation: How to Optimize Your Business's Tax Strategy.

Our journey through the dynamic world of UAE financial services has been marked by a steadfast commitment to excellence. Over the years, we have honed our skills, gaining a deep understanding of the intricacies that define this unique market. From navigating the complexities of tax regulations to devising astute investment strategies, our team at Trust Accounts Management has proven time and again that expertise is our foremost asset. With a track record of success, we have become a trusted partner for businesses seeking financial guidance in the UAE.

What is the tax system in the UAE?

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) boasts a uniquely advantageous tax environment that has attracted businesses and individuals from around the world. Understanding the intricacies of this tax system is pivotal for successful financial management in the region.

The UAE stands as a beacon of low taxation in the global landscape. One of the most noteworthy features of the country’s tax regime is the absence of federal income tax, both for individuals and corporations. This means that, unlike many other countries, individuals do not have a portion of their earnings deducted for income tax, and corporations are not subject to a federal tax on their profits. This exceptional characteristic has positioned the UAE as an attractive destination for entrepreneurs, professionals, and businesses seeking to optimize their financial prospects.

  1. No federal income tax for individuals and corporations

Individuals in the UAE enjoy the unique benefit of retaining their entire income, as there is no federal income tax imposed by the government. This means that the money earned through employment, investments, or other sources remains wholly in the hands of the individual. Similarly, corporations operating in the UAE are not burdened with a federal income tax on their profits, allowing them to reinvest and grow their businesses with a competitive edge on the global stage.

  1. Value Added Tax (VAT) and its implications

In recent years, the UAE has introduced Value Added Tax (VAT) as part of its fiscal reforms. This significant development marks a departure from the historical tax landscape and brings with it a set of new considerations for businesses and consumers alike. VAT is a consumption tax, meaning it is applied at each stage of the supply chain, ultimately impacting the end consumer. Understanding the mechanisms of VAT, its applicable rates, and compliance requirements is essential for businesses to navigate this new facet of UAE taxation effectively.

Navigating the UAE’s tax system, with its absence of federal income tax and the introduction of VAT, necessitates a strategic approach to financial management.

Key taxes businesses should be aware of:

Navigating the tax landscape in the UAE is crucial for businesses seeking to establish a strong financial foothold in this dynamic region. Understanding the various taxes that may apply to your business operations is a fundamental step toward effective financial planning.

  1. Corporate Income Tax (CIT): The UAE stands out globally for its unique tax regime, which notably excludes corporate income tax. This means that businesses, both domestic and foreign, are not subject to a direct tax on their profits. This distinctive advantage has positioned the UAE as an immensely attractive destination for businesses seeking to maximize their earnings.
  2. Value Added Tax (VAT): In recent years, the UAE has introduced Value Added Tax (VAT) at a standard rate of 5%. VAT is applied to the majority of goods and services, affecting both consumers and businesses. It’s imperative for enterprises to understand VAT’s implications on their pricing structures and financial operations, ensuring compliance with the regulations.
  3. Customs Duties: For businesses involved in import and export activities, customs duties play a significant role. While the UAE boasts a relatively low average tariff rate, businesses must be aware of specific duty rates for different categories of goods. Comprehending these duties aids in accurate pricing, cost analysis, and effective supply chain management.
  4. Excise Tax: Excise tax is imposed on specific goods that are considered harmful to public health or the environment, such as tobacco products, sugary beverages, and certain energy drinks. Businesses engaged in the production or import of these goods need to be well-versed in excise tax regulations to ensure compliance and proper financial planning.

By gaining a comprehensive understanding of these key taxes, businesses can strategize effectively to optimize their financial operations and make the most of the UAE’s business-friendly tax environment.

Incentives for Businesses in the UAE

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) stands as a beacon of opportunity, offering a host of incentives to entice both local and international enterprises. Among the most prominent are the Free Zones, specialized areas designed to foster economic growth and facilitate foreign investment. These zones provide a fertile ground for businesses to flourish, presenting a range of benefits that can significantly impact their bottom line. From full foreign ownership to tax holidays and reduced corporate tax rates, the incentives offered within the Free Zones are designed to empower businesses with the tools they need to thrive in the competitive global market.

Free Zones and Their Tax Benefits

In the dynamic business landscape of the UAE, Free Zones stand out as catalysts for economic growth and foreign investment. These specialized zones offer a range of compelling advantages for businesses seeking to establish or expand their operations in the region. Among the notable benefits are the freedom of full foreign ownership, relief from import and export duties, and the opportunity to enjoy tax holidays and reduced corporate tax rates.

In this section, we’ll delve into each of these incentives, shedding light on how they can significantly enhance your business’s prospects in the UAE.

  1. 100% Foreign Ownership: One of the most compelling reasons businesses flock to Free Zones in the UAE is the promise of full foreign ownership. In many other jurisdictions, restrictions on ownership can be a significant hurdle for international investors. However, in Free Zones, this constraint is lifted, empowering businesses with the freedom to retain full control and management of their ventures. This opens up a world of opportunities for businesses looking to establish a foothold in the UAE without compromising their autonomy.
  2. Exemption from Import and Export Duties: Free Zones offer a sanctuary for businesses seeking relief from the often hefty import and export duties that can otherwise erode profitability. By establishing your business in a Free Zone, you gain the advantage of conducting international trade with reduced financial burdens. This exemption extends to both importation of raw materials and the exportation of finished goods, providing a competitive edge in the global marketplace.
  3. Tax Holidays and Reduced Corporate Tax Rates: The allure of tax incentives in Free Zones cannot be overstated. Many Free Zones in the UAE offer businesses a designated period of tax holidays, during which they are exempt from corporate taxation. Additionally, even after the conclusion of the tax holiday, businesses in Free Zones often enjoy significantly reduced corporate tax rates compared to the rest of the UAE. These fiscal advantages translate into substantial savings and bolster the overall profitability of businesses operating within these zones.

With these compelling incentives, Free Zones in the UAE have become magnets for businesses seeking an environment conducive to growth, innovation, and international success. By capitalizing on the benefits of full foreign ownership, import/export duty exemptions, and favorable tax structures, businesses can position themselves for long-term success in this thriving economic hub.

Double Taxation Treaties (DTTs) and their Significance

In the global landscape of business, Double Taxation Treaties (DTTs) stand as crucial instruments for fostering economic cooperation and eliminating the burden of double taxation. For businesses operating internationally, understanding the significance of DTTs is paramount.

These treaties serve as powerful tools that ensure income earned in one country isn’t subject to taxation in both that country and the investor’s home nation. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), a network of such treaties has been established to facilitate international trade and investment.

  1. Avoidance of Double Taxation on International Income: Double taxation occurs when income is taxed twice: once in the country where it’s earned and again in the taxpayer’s country of residence. This scenario can significantly impede cross-border trade and investment. DTTs are bilateral agreements between countries that seek to mitigate this issue. These treaties specify which country has the primary right to tax certain types of income, thus preventing double taxation. For businesses operating in the UAE, understanding the terms and provisions of these treaties can lead to substantial tax savings and facilitate seamless international expansion.
  2. List of Countries with DTTs With the UAE: The UAE has been proactive in establishing a network of DTTs with various nations across the globe. These treaties not only facilitate cross-border business activities but also provide a framework for cooperation in tax matters.

The UAE has forged Double Taxation Treaties (DTTs) with several countries, solidifying its position as a global business hub. These agreements play a pivotal role in mitigating the risk of double taxation for businesses engaged in international activities. United States, Canada, France, Germany, India, etc., are countries with which the UAE has established DTTs.

Each of these treaties is tailored to regulate the tax treatment of specific types of income, ensuring that businesses can efficiently navigate the complex international tax landscape. A comprehensive list of countries with which the UAE has entered into Double Taxation Treaties is essential for businesses looking to expand their global footprint while optimizing their tax strategy.

Understanding the intricacies of DTTs and the countries with which the UAE has agreements is paramount for businesses aiming to thrive in the global marketplace. By leveraging the provisions outlined in these treaties, companies can effectively navigate the complexities of international taxation, ensuring that their hard-earned profits are allocated efficiently and in compliance with legal frameworks.

Effective Tax Planning Strategies

Effective Tax Planning Strategies

Navigating the UAE’s tax landscape effectively requires more than just compliance; it demands a well-thought-out tax strategy tailored to your business’s unique circumstances. In this section, we’ll explore key tax planning strategies that can help you optimize your business’s tax position in the UAE. One fundamental decision to make is choosing the right business structure. The UAE offers various options, each with its own tax implications and advantages.

We’ll delve into three primary business structures: Limited Liability Company (LLC), Free Zone Entity, and Offshore Company, explaining the benefits and considerations for each.

Choosing the right business structure

Selecting the appropriate business structure is a critical step in optimizing your tax strategy in the UAE. Each option – Limited Liability Company (LLC), Free Zone Entity, and Offshore Company – offers distinct advantages and considerations. Understanding the nuances of each will enable you to align your business goals with the most tax-efficient framework.

  1. Limited Liability Company (LLC)

A Limited Liability Company, or LLC, is a popular choice for businesses looking to operate within the UAE mainland. Here are some key features:

  • Ownership: LLCs require at least one local UAE partner with a minimum ownership stake of 51%, while foreign investors can hold the remaining 49%.
  • Liability: Shareholders’ liability is limited to their share in the company’s capital.
  • Taxation: LLCs are subject to corporate income tax (CIT) but may benefit from tax treaties and exemptions based on the nature of their business activities.

Understanding the specifics of LLCs is vital for businesses seeking a local presence and navigating the complexities of UAE taxation.

  1. Free Zone Entity

Free Zones in the UAE are designed to attract foreign investment and offer various tax incentives and benefits. Key considerations for a Free Zone Entity include:

  • Ownership: Depending on the Free Zone, foreign investors can often retain 100% ownership of their business.
  • Taxation: Many Free Zones offer tax holidays, customs duty exemptions, and reduced CIT rates, making them an attractive option for businesses.
  • Geographical Restrictions: Businesses in Free Zones are often limited to conducting business within the respective Free Zone or internationally, not within the UAE mainland.

Exploring the various Free Zones and their specific benefits is crucial when considering this business structure.

  1. Offshore Company

For businesses primarily engaged in international activities, setting up an Offshore Company in the UAE can offer significant advantages:

  • Ownership: Offshore Companies typically allow 100% foreign ownership.
  • Taxation: They are often exempt from local taxes, including CIT and VAT, but cannot engage in business activities within the UAE.
  • Asset Protection: Offshore entities can be useful for holding assets, intellectual property, or facilitating international trade.

The choice of an offshore company can be strategic for businesses with global operations.

Leveraging Tax Exemptions and Incentives

In the dynamic landscape of UAE taxation, businesses have the unique opportunity to optimize their tax strategy by capitalizing on a range of exemptions and incentives provided by the government. These mechanisms are designed to stimulate economic growth, attract foreign investment, and foster innovation. By understanding and strategically applying these provisions, businesses can significantly reduce their tax liabilities and enhance their overall financial performance. In this section, we will delve into the key aspects of leveraging tax exemptions and incentives, providing valuable insights to help businesses make informed decisions.

  1. Free Zones Benefits: One of the most prominent avenues for businesses to leverage tax exemptions and incentives in the UAE is through the establishment of operations in Free Zones. These specialized economic zones offer a host of advantages, including 100% foreign ownership, exemption from import and export duties, and preferential corporate tax rates. By strategically selecting a Free Zone that aligns with their industry and operational needs, businesses can unlock substantial tax benefits.
  2. Investment Incentives: The UAE government has implemented a range of investment incentives aimed at attracting and retaining businesses. These incentives may include tax holidays, reduced corporate tax rates, and grants for specific industries or projects. Understanding the eligibility criteria and application process for these incentives is crucial for businesses looking to optimize their tax position while contributing to the economic development of the region.
  3. Research and Development (R&D) Credits: Encouraging innovation and technological advancement is a priority for the UAE government. As such, businesses engaged in research and development activities may be eligible for tax credits or incentives. These incentives are designed to foster innovation and enhance competitiveness in a global market. Navigating the requirements for R&D incentives can result in significant tax savings for businesses invested in pioneering technologies and solutions.
  4. Industry-Specific Benefits: Different industries may have specific tax exemptions or incentives tailored to their unique operational requirements. For instance, the manufacturing sector may benefit from reduced customs duties on raw materials, while the tourism industry may enjoy specialized incentives to promote tourism-related activities. Understanding the industry-specific benefits available can provide businesses with a competitive edge in their respective sectors.

By proactively identifying and capitalizing on these tax exemptions and incentives, businesses can not only reduce their tax burden but also position themselves for sustainable growth and success in the UAE market.

Utilizing Tax-Efficient Accounting Practices

Effective tax planning goes beyond structuring your business; it extends to how you manage your finances and maintain your books. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), understanding and implementing tax-efficient accounting practices can significantly impact your tax liabilities and overall financial health. In this section, we will explore key accounting strategies that can help you optimize your business’s tax strategy in the UAE.

  1. Accurate Record-Keeping: Proper record-keeping is the foundation of sound tax planning. Maintaining organized and accurate financial records ensures that you have a clear overview of your business’s financial health, making it easier to identify potential tax-saving opportunities. In the UAE, stringent record-keeping is essential for Value Added Tax (VAT) compliance. We will delve into best practices for maintaining records that meet regulatory requirements while also serving as a valuable tool for strategic decision-making.
  2. Expense Tracking and Deductions: Identifying legitimate business expenses and understanding the deductibility criteria is crucial for reducing your taxable income. We’ll discuss how to categorize expenses correctly and take advantage of available deductions to minimize your tax burden. Moreover, we’ll cover specific UAE tax regulations related to expense deductions that you should be aware of.
  3. Asset Depreciation and Amortization: Properly accounting for asset depreciation and amortization can lead to significant tax savings. We’ll explain the methods for calculating depreciation and amortization, as well as the UAE’s tax treatment of these expenses. Understanding when and how to apply these accounting practices can help spread the cost of assets over their useful life, reducing taxable income.
  4. Inventory Management: For businesses that hold inventory, efficient inventory management can impact both cash flow and tax liabilities. We’ll explore strategies for optimizing inventory turnover, minimizing carrying costs, and ensuring compliance with UAE tax regulations related to inventory valuation.
  5. Revenue Recognition: Recognizing revenue at the right time can affect when you report taxable income. We’ll discuss revenue recognition methods and the implications for your tax liabilities in the UAE. Properly aligning your revenue recognition practices with tax requirements can help you manage tax obligations more effectively.
  6. Financial Statements and Reporting: Accurate financial statements are not only vital for decision-making but also for tax compliance. We’ll guide you through the process of preparing financial statements that meet UAE tax reporting standards. This includes understanding the differences between financial and tax accounting and how to reconcile them.

By mastering these tax-efficient accounting practices, you can not only ensure compliance with UAE tax regulations but also strategically manage your business’s finances to minimize tax liabilities and maximize profits.

Transfer pricing and its role in minimizing tax liabilities for multinational companies

Transfer pricing is a crucial aspect of international taxation, especially for multinational companies conducting business across borders. It refers to the pricing of goods, services, and intellectual property transferred between entities within the same corporate group. Properly managed transfer pricing can significantly impact a company’s tax liabilities, ensuring they align with market conditions and regulatory requirements.

  1. Aligning Prices with Market Conditions: One of the primary objectives of transfer pricing is to ensure that transactions between affiliated companies reflect the prices that would be negotiated between unrelated, independent entities in similar circumstances. This helps prevent artificial profit shifting and ensures that each entity within the group is appropriately compensated for its contributions.
  2. Compliance with Local and International Regulations: Multinational companies must adhere to both local tax laws and international guidelines, such as the OECD’s Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Administrations. Understanding and applying these regulations is crucial for minimizing the risk of audits, penalties, and double taxation.
  3. Choosing the Right Transfer Pricing Method: There are various methods available for determining transfer prices, including the Comparable Uncontrolled Price (CUP) method, Cost Plus method, and Resale Price method, among others. Selecting the most appropriate method depends on the nature of the transaction and the available data.
  4. Documentation and Record-keeping: Adequate documentation is essential to support the transfer pricing policies adopted by multinational companies. This includes maintaining detailed records of the pricing methodology applied, economic analyses, and any adjustments made to ensure compliance with local regulations.
  5. Advance Pricing Agreements (APAs): APAs are agreements between a taxpayer and a tax authority that establish an acceptable range for transfer prices. This provides certainty and reduces the risk of disputes related to transfer pricing. Engaging in APAs can be a proactive approach to managing transfer pricing risks.
  6. Transfer Pricing Audits and Dispute Resolution: Multinational companies may face transfer pricing audits by tax authorities. It’s imperative to be prepared for these audits and have a solid defense based on accurate documentation and compliance with relevant regulations. In the event of a dispute, having a clear resolution strategy is crucial to protect the company’s interests.

By employing sound transfer pricing strategies, multinational companies can not only minimize their tax liabilities but also enhance their overall global tax efficiency. However, it’s important to work with experienced professionals who understand the intricacies of transfer pricing to navigate this complex area of taxation effectively.

Ensuring Tax Compliance in the UAE

Ensuring Tax Compliance in the UAE

In the United Arab Emirates, tax compliance is a critical aspect of doing business. Staying on the right side of tax regulations not only ensures a smooth and legal operation but also helps avoid hefty penalties and fines. Value Added Tax (VAT) is one of the primary taxes businesses need to be vigilant about in the UAE.

Understanding VAT Registration and Filing Requirements

Value Added Tax (VAT) was introduced in the UAE in 2018, marking a significant shift in the tax landscape. To ensure your business complies with VAT regulations, it’s essential to understand the registration and filing requirements.

Let’s break down these requirements:

  1. Mandatory VAT Registration: Businesses that meet the prescribed threshold for annual revenue are obligated to register for VAT. This threshold is AED 375,000. It’s crucial to keep an eye on updates from the Federal Tax Authority (FTA) for any changes in these thresholds.
  2. Voluntary VAT Registration: Even if your business doesn’t meet the mandatory registration threshold, you can opt for voluntary registration. This can be advantageous for businesses aiming to recover VAT on their expenses.
  3. Obtaining a Tax Registration Number (TRN): Upon registration, your business will be assigned a Tax Registration Number (TRN). This unique identifier is used for all VAT-related transactions and communications with the tax authorities.
  4. Filing VAT Returns: VAT-registered businesses are required to file regular VAT returns with the FTA. These returns typically cover a specific tax period, usually on a quarterly basis. Businesses must accurately report their taxable supplies, input tax, and the resulting VAT liability.
  5. VAT Payments: VAT payments are due within a specific timeframe outlined by the FTA. Businesses must ensure they have the necessary funds to cover their VAT liabilities when the payment deadline arrives.
  6. Maintaining Records: Proper record-keeping is a fundamental aspect of VAT compliance. Businesses must maintain detailed records of all transactions, including invoices, receipts, and VAT calculations. These records may be subject to audit by the tax authorities.

Understanding these VAT registration and filing requirements is crucial for businesses operating in the UAE. Non-compliance can lead to penalties and legal issues, making it essential to stay informed and proactive in meeting your tax obligations.

Record-keeping and Documentation Best Practices

  1. Digital Archiving and Cloud-Based Storage: In an era dominated by technology, transitioning to digital record-keeping is not just a convenience but a necessity. Utilizing cloud-based storage solutions allows for secure and accessible archives, minimizing the risk of physical document loss or damage. It also facilitates easy retrieval during audits or assessments.
  2. Categorization and Organization: Systematic categorization of financial documents is a cornerstone of effective record-keeping. Segregating documents by type (e.g., invoices, receipts, contracts) and chronological order streamlines retrieval processes. This organized approach not only enhances operational efficiency but also ensures that all essential documents are readily available for scrutiny.
  3. Retention Policies and Periodic Reviews: Implementing a well-defined document retention policy is crucial. Different types of documents have varying retention requirements under UAE tax regulations. Regular reviews of stored records, alongside purging of outdated or irrelevant documents, help maintain compliance and prevent clutter.
  4. Cross-Referencing and Validation: It’s essential to cross-reference financial records for accuracy and consistency. Reconciling data between different documents, such as invoices and receipts, helps identify any discrepancies that may arise. Validating the accuracy of the information against bank statements and financial reports adds an extra layer of assurance.
  5. Backups and Redundancies: Creating backups of critical financial records is a safeguard against unforeseen events like system failures, cyberattacks, or natural disasters. Having redundant copies, stored securely, ensures that even in the face of adversity, your vital financial data remains intact and accessible.
  6. Compliance with Regulatory Standards: Staying up-to-date with the specific record-keeping requirements outlined by UAE tax authorities is imperative. Understanding the nuances of document retention and submission timelines helps businesses maintain compliance and avoid penalties or legal repercussions.

By adhering to these record-keeping and documentation best practices, businesses can fortify their tax compliance framework, fostering a secure and transparent financial environment in accordance with UAE taxation laws and regulations.

Deadline awareness for tax submissions

  1. Understanding VAT Registration Deadlines: When it comes to Value Added Tax (VAT), the UAE mandates that businesses exceeding the mandatory threshold must register for VAT within 30 days of becoming eligible. This threshold is typically set at AED 375,000 of annual taxable turnover. Failing to register within this timeframe can lead to penalties. It’s essential to monitor your turnover and promptly register when required.
  2. Filing VAT Returns on Time: VAT returns in the UAE are typically filed on a quarterly basis. Missing the deadline for filing VAT returns, which is usually within 28 days after the end of the tax period, can result in penalties. Moreover, accurate and complete reporting is crucial to avoid any discrepancies that could trigger audits or investigations.
  3. Corporate Income Tax (CIT) Filing Deadlines: While the UAE doesn’t have federal corporate income tax, businesses operating in certain sectors, such as oil and gas, may be subject to CIT. If your business falls into this category, it’s vital to be aware of the specific filing deadlines and requirements imposed by the respective Emirate or Free Zone Authority where you operate. These deadlines may vary, so staying updated is essential.
  4. Customs Duties and Excise Tax Compliance: If your business involves importing or exporting goods, you’ll need to adhere to customs duties and excise tax regulations. Customs duties are typically due upon import, and compliance with customs regulations is crucial to avoid delays and fines. Excise tax, applied to specific products like tobacco and sugary drinks, has its own compliance requirements and deadlines.
  5. Record-Keeping and Documentation Timelines: Beyond submission deadlines, maintaining proper records and documentation is key to tax compliance. The UAE tax authorities may request financial records and transaction details at any time. Therefore, it’s essential to establish robust record-keeping practices and ensure that records are retained for the required statutory period, which is typically five years.

Meeting tax submission deadlines is a fundamental aspect of tax compliance in the UAE. Failing to do so can result in financial penalties and reputational damage. Therefore, businesses must not only be aware of these deadlines but also have efficient processes in place to meet them consistently.

Trust Accounts Management’s Commitment

Trust Accounts Management is dedicated to being your trusted ally in navigating the UAE’s tax landscape. Our team of experts, seasoned in Middle Eastern finance, is committed to tailoring strategies that align with your business goals. We understand that tax planning isn’t just about compliance; it’s about strategic advantage. By leveraging our expertise, you’ll not only ensure adherence to regulations but also gain a competitive edge in the market.

As you embark on your journey to optimize your business’s tax strategy, we invite you to connect with us. Our personalized tax advisory services are designed to meet the unique needs of your business. Whether you’re a startup seeking to establish a tax-efficient structure or an established enterprise aiming to fine-tune your tax planning, Trust Accounts Management is here to guide you.

Ready to take the next step towards tax optimization? Reach out to us today for a consultation. Contact our experts to learn more about our services and explore additional resources on UAE taxation.

Understanding UAE Taxation

Understanding UAE Taxation

In a region where economic policies are continuously evolving, comprehending the nuances of UAE taxation is paramount for businesses seeking to thrive. The absence of federal income tax, coupled with the introduction of Value Added Tax (VAT), has reshaped the fiscal landscape. Navigating these changes requires more than just familiarity; it demands a strategic approach.

Throughout this guide, we’ve delved into the intricacies of UAE taxation, unraveling its nuances and highlighting pivotal aspects for businesses operating in the region. From the absence of federal income tax to the introduction of Value Added Tax (VAT), we’ve provided insights into the tax landscape. Additionally, we’ve explored incentives such as Free Zones and Double Taxation Treaties, illuminating avenues for businesses to optimize their tax positions.

Understanding the tax structures and incentives not only ensures compliance but also unlocks opportunities for businesses to optimize their financial strategies. At Trust Accounts Management, we recognize that this knowledge is a cornerstone for success in the UAE, and we are dedicated to empowering businesses with the financial insights they need to flourish.